buy nembutal Habit Forming
Barbiturates may be habit forming. Tolerance, psychological and physical dependence may occur with continued use. (See “Drug Abuse And Dependence” and “Pharmacokinetics” sections.) Patients who have psychological dependence on barbiturates may increase the dosage or decrease the dosage interval without consulting a physician and may subsequently develop a physical dependence on barbiturates. To minimize the possibility of overdosage or the development of dependence, the prescribing and dispensing of sedative-hypnotic barbiturates is of limit to the amount required for the interval until the next appointment. Abrupt cessation after prolonged use in the dependent person may result in withdrawal symptoms, including delirium, convulsions, and possibly death. Take Barbiturates gradually from any patient who is taking excessive dosage over long periods of time. (See “Drug Abuse And Dependence” section.)
Too rapid administration may cause respiratory depression, apnea, laryngospasm, or vasodilation with fall in blood pressure.
Acute Or Chronic Pain
Take caution when you give barbiturates to patients with acute or chronic pain, because paradoxical excitement could be induced or important symptoms could be masked. However, the use of barbiturates as sedatives in the postoperative surgical period and as adjuncts to cancer chemotherapy is well established.
Use In Pregnancy
Barbiturates can cause fetal damage when administered to a pregnant woman. Retrospective, case-controlled studies have suggested a connection between the maternal consumption of barbiturates. And a higher than expected incidence of fetal abnormalities. Following oral or parenteral administration, barbiturates readily cross the placental barrier and spread throughout fetal tissues with highest concentrations found in the placenta, fetal liver, and brain. Fetal blood levels approach maternal blood levels following parenteral administration. Withdrawal symptoms occur in infants born to mothers who receive barbiturates throughout the last trimester of pregnancy. (See “Drug Abuse And Dependence” section.) If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
The concomitant use of alcohol or other CNS depressants may produce additive CNS depressant effects.
Published animal studies demonstrate that the administration of anesthetic and sedation drugs. It blocks NMDA receptors or potentiate GABA activity increase. Neuronal apoptosis in the developing brain and result in long-term cognitive deficits. When used for longer than 3 hours the clinical significance of these findings is not clear. However, based on the available data, the window of vulnerability to these changes correlates with exposures in the third trimester of gestation through the first several months of life, but may extend out to approximately three years of age in humans (see “PRECAUTIONS–Pregnancy and Pediatric Use” and “Animal Pharmacology And/Or Toxicology”).